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Linux Commands

Posted by W2NAP, APR 23, 2020

CAT The cat command (short for “concatenate”) lists the contents of files to the terminal window. This is faster than opening the file in an editor, and there’s no chance you can accidentally alter the file.

cat /var/log/mail.log

CD The cd command changes your current directory. In other words, it moves you to a new place in the filesystem. If you are changing to a directory that is within your current directory, you can simply type cd and the name of the other directory.

cd Downloads
cd /var/log/

CHMOD The chmod command sets the file permissions flags on a file or folder. The flags define who can read, write to or execute the file. When you list files with the -l (long format) option you’ll see a string of characters that look like

chmod 0644 index.php
chmod 0755 downloads

CHOWN The chown command allows you to change the owner and group owner of a file.

chown bob:mail mail.txt

DF The df command shows the size, used space, and available space on the mounted filesystems of your computer.

df -h downloads

FREE The free command gives you a summary of the memory usage with your computer. It does this for both the main Random Access Memory (RAM) and swap memory.

free -h

GROUPS The groups command tells you which groups a user is a member of.

groups bill

LS It lists the files and folders in the directory you specify. By default, ls looks in the current directory. To list the files and folders in the current directory:


To list the files and folders in the current directory with a detailed listing use the -l (long) option:

ls -l

MKDIR The mkdir command allows you to create new directories in the filesystem. You must provide the name of the new directory to mkdir. If the new directory is not going to be within the current directory, you must provide the path to the new directory.

mkdir yaesu

MV The mv command allows you to move files and directories from directory to directory. It also allows you to rename files.

mv radio.txt /home/bill/Documents/

PASSWD The passwd command lets you change the password for a user. Just type passwd to change your own password.

sudo passwd bill

SSH Use the ssh command to make a connection to a remote Linux computer and log into your account. To make a connection, you must provide your user name and the IP address or domain name of the remote computer.

ssh This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

SUDO The sudo command is required when performing actions that require root or superuser permissions, such as changing the password for another user.

sudo passwd bill

TOP  The top command is used to show the Linux processes. It provides a dynamic real-time view of the running system.


UNAME You can obtain some system information regarding the Linux computer you’re working on with the uname command. Use the -a (all) option to see everything. Use the -s (kernel name) option to see the type of kernel. Use the -r (kernel release) option to see the kernel release. Use the -v (kernel version) option to see the kernel version.

uname -a

Upgrading Linux distros To update a Debian based disto

sudo apt update
sudo apt upgrade

To update a Redhat based distro (Fedora)

dnf update